The larynx, also calledAnswering machineoAdamsapfel,It is the part of the body that allows humans to produce sounds and speak.The larynx contains the vocal cords (Glotis) that vibrate when air passes through. EITHEREpiglottisIt is a small flap of cartilage located at the top of the larynx. The epiglottis protects the airways by preventing food and saliva from moving through the airways.windpipe(the "windpipe" that leads to the lungs).
Throat cancer can occur in the glottis (most laryngeal cancers are there), whichexcess(the area above the vocal cords that contains the epiglottis) or thesubglottic(the area that connects the larynx to the trachea).
Laryngeal cancer affects more men than women, although now more women develop it due to the increase in smoking among the female population.
Although the exact cause of cancer is unknown, some known risk factors for throat cancer include:
- From smoking:The risk of throat cancer increases up to 30 times in smokers. The more someone smokes, the greater the risk. Passive smoking is also considered a danger.
- Alcohol:Heavy drinkers double the risk of this type of cancer, and combining smoking with alcohol can increase the risk even more than drinking or smoking alone.
- Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD):In GERD, stomach acid builds up in the esophagus, causing burning pain. Although not definitively proven, researchers have found that long-lasting GERD irritation is linked to an increased risk of throat cancer.
- poor diet:Many people who abuse alcohol also have poor eating habits, but some research also suggests that inadequate vitamin intake may be a risk factor.
- Human papillomavirus (HPV):The virus, which can cause genital warts, can also turn into certain types of cancer. Mothers can transmit the virus to their children at birth. It settles in the larynx and develops in the so-called growths.laringe papilomaLate in life. These growths can become cancerous.
- constantly:Throat cancer is twice as common in people of African descent than in Caucasians.
- gender:More men than women have throat cancer.
- Eras:This type of cancer is usually detected in people between the ages of 50 and 75.
- weakened immune system:People with weakened immune systems (due to diseases such as AIDS or medications that reduce immunity to viruses) are more prone to throat cancer.
- toxic load:These risk factors include exposure to wood dust, asbestos, or many types of chemicals that can increase the risk of cancer.
- Excessive use of language:People who use their voice a lot, such as singers, can developpolyps(pieces of tissue) that can become cancerous if not removed.
- a cough that won't go away
- persistent sore throat
- Difficulty breathing or feeling like something is stuck in your throat
- Ear pain (sore throat can be felt in the ear)
- a lump or mass in the throat or throat
- cough up blood
- esophageal speech:This is the most basic form of alternate speech, swallowing air and making noise when expelled.
- Tracheoesophageal puncture (TEP):A small one-way valve is placed between the trachea and the esophagus. Breathing air through the stoma into the lungs and then covering the stoma (of the tracheostomy) can generate sounds through the mouth.
- Electrolaringe:When you hold this electronic device close to the skin of your throat or to the corners of your mouth, it produces a mechanical voice. Muscle movements stimulate the machine to make sounds.
- Laringoscopia:A flexible hose (fiber optic scope) is used to look for tumors or polyps in the larynx, mouth, tongue, and throat.
- Computed Tomography (CT):A type of scan that allows doctors to see abnormalities (such as images of the neck).
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI):Another type of scan that can detect abnormalities in the neck.
- chest x-ray:This test detects tumors that may have spread to the lungs.
- Positron emission tomography (PET):This test can help determine the extent of throat cancer and identify distant areas of spread.
- Biopsy:Removal of a small piece of tumor tissue to look for signs of cancer. The tissue is taken during an endoscopy or through a thin needle inserted into the throat (local freezing or general anesthesia may be used to make the procedure more comfortable).
- Level 0:The cancer has not penetrated into the tissue and can be removed from the vocal cords without removing tissue.
- Level 1 and 2:The cancer has invaded local tissues but is still in the area of the body where it started.
- Level 3 and 4:The cancer has invaded beyond local tissues and has likely spread (metastasized) to local lymph nodes or even to more distant sites in other parts of the body.
- Newspaper:The cancer came back after the initial treatment.
- sensitive mouth and gums
- mouth ulcers
- dry mouth
- Throat pain
- voice changes
- red and dry skin
- Change or loss of taste or smell
- nausea and vomiting
- possible hair loss
- canker sores
- increased risk of infection
- hearing damage
- Using respirators in industrial areas with carcinogenic chemicals
- receiving treatment for GERD
- eat a healthy and balanced diet
symptoms and complications
The symptoms of throat cancer depend on the location of the tumor in the larynx.Vocal cord cancer can usually be detected early because hoarseness is the main symptom.
Most people get hoarse from time to time, but if the hoarseness doesn't go away in two weeks, it should be checked.
Symptoms that cancer has spread to or is elsewhere in the larynx include:
There are some complications that can result from throat cancer.
Obstruction of the airway:Any tumor or swelling in the airways can cause a blockage and make breathing difficult. If treatment involves complete removal of the larynx: atracheotomy(Surgery to create an artificial airway in the windpipe) is then done to improve breathing.
Distortion:Removal of the tumor and surrounding tissue can leave some disfigurement of the throat and throat. Muscles can also be removed, making movement of the neck more difficult. If a tracheostomy has been performed, theStoma(opening of the throat) is sometimes permanent.
Difficulty eating:After surgery, certain food consistencies may be difficult to swallow. Those who undergo radiation therapy may have trouble swallowing or even chewing. Chemotherapy can cause nausea and vomiting. Good, healthy nutrition is vital during healing from cancer, so it is important that you maintain adequate nutrition throughout your treatment.
spread of cancer:The cancer may spread to other areas of the body.
voice loss:Treatment that involves removing the entire larynx makes it impossible to speak normally. In this case, alternative ways of speaking must be learned. These are:
As these new language methods are learned, other forms of communication are needed. This may mean having a "magic board" or a pad and pencil ready. It is important to plan ahead to avoid frustration after surgery.
make the diagnosis
If cancer is suspected, your doctor will first take a medical history, including information about smoking and alcohol use.It is important to mention previous use or exposure, even if none is currently present. After a physical exam, the following tests may be performed:
Diagnosis also involves determining the stage of the cancer to determine how advanced it is.
treatment and prevention
As with most cancers, treatment for throat cancer includes surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of treatments.The decision about the type of therapy is made based on how advanced the cancer is (ie, the stage) and where exactly it is located.
Early-stage throat cancer can usually be treated with radiation alone.Radiation therapy is the preferred method when possible because it generally does not affect voice quality and the side effects are usually temporary. Side effects of radiation can include:
SurgeryIt may involve removing the entire larynx and surrounding tissues, or just part of the larynx, depending on the extent of the cancer.
With partial removal (laringectomia), you can often eat and breathe as you did before surgery after healing is complete. You will likely have a temporary tracheotomy while your neck is being repaired, but the stoma may close and your breathing may return to normal. The quality of his voice may change, but he can still speak.
If you have to have a total laryngectomy, in which the entire larynx is removed, an incision is left in your windpipe so you can breathe. This tracheotomy is permanent.
Finally,chemotherapyIt may be needed if the cancer has spread. For advanced tumors that are still considered treatable, chemotherapy is also used to "sensitize" the area to radiation.
Because chemotherapy circulates throughout the body, the treatment affects more body systems.
Side effects of chemotherapy include:
The 5-year survival rate for early detected laryngeal cancer is 60% to 90%.Most cancer recurrences occur within the first 2 to 3 years of treatment. Follow-up procedures usually include monthly checks for the first year and every few months thereafter. Unfortunately, because the same risk factors that may have caused the first tumor may also have caused other damage, the chance of developing a second tumor (often in the head, neck, or lungs) can be as high as 25%.
Many risk factors for throat cancer are known,The most common are smoking and excessive drinking. Many types of cancer could be prevented by avoiding these known causes.
Other ways to reduce risk include:
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Throat cancer is a general term that describes several different types of cancer. Symptoms include ear pain or a sore throat, a lump in the neck, difficulty swallowing, change in your voice or speech, unexplained weight loss, a cough, shortness of breath and a feeling of something stuck in the throat.What are the 1st signs of throat cancer? ›
- A cough.
- Changes in your voice, such as hoarseness or not speaking clearly.
- Difficulty swallowing.
- Ear pain.
- A lump or sore that doesn't heal.
- A sore throat.
- Weight loss.
Throat cancer generally refers to cancers that start in the pharynx or larynx (voice box), but can also refer to cancers that start in the oesophagus (food pipe) or thyroid.Do throat cancer symptoms come and go? ›
Symptoms may come and go. "Persistent" doesn't always mean constant. For example, you may have a sore throat for a week that goes away for a few days and then returns. If you experience intermittent or constant symptoms for two weeks or longer, you should make an appointment to see a healthcare professional.How long do throat cancer symptoms last? ›
Some common throat cancer symptoms include: A sore throat that lasts for more than two weeks. Pain or difficulty swallowing food (dysphagia). Changes in your voice, like hoarseness, that last more than two weeks.Does throat cancer show up in blood work? ›
No blood test can diagnose cancer in the oral cavity or oropharynx. Still, your doctor may order routine blood tests to get an idea of your overall health, especially before treatment. Such tests can help diagnose poor nutrition and low blood cell counts.Does throat cancer have a feeling? ›
Trouble swallowing: Throat cancer can cause pain or a burning sensation when chewing and swallowing food. You might feel like food is sticking in your throat. A lump in your throat: You may have a lump in your throat caused by an enlarged lymph node.What age is throat cancer most common? ›
Most people diagnosed with laryngeal cancer are 55 or older; a very small number of people diagnosed are younger than 55. The average age of people diagnosed with laryngeal cancer is about 66. Black men are more likely to develop laryngeal cancer than White men and are more likely to die from it.What does Stage 1 throat cancer look like? ›
A primary tumor of the throat can appear as a nodular mass on the floor of the mouth, tongue, tonsil, or wall of the throat. The mass will tend to be irregular, fixed, and relatively painless, but can interfere with swallowing and make you feel like you have something caught in your throat.Do you have phlegm with throat cancer? ›
Additional symptoms of pharyngeal throat cancer include: Earaches and changes in hearing. Persistent nasal congestion. Chronic coughing, possibly expelling bloody phlegm.
For most head and neck cancer subtypes, one-year survival falls between 5 and 10 years after diagnosis.How fast does cancer grow in the throat? ›
Professor Christopher Nutting explains that throat cancers will develop steadily in an individual patient once the tumour has developed. Cancers will double in size about every two to three months, which is quite quick compared to other tumour types.What foods should be avoided with throat cancer? ›
Avoid steaming hot foods and drinks. Don't eat acidic fruits (such as oranges, grapefruits, lemons, or limes) or drink acidic fruit juice. Don't eat spicy foods. Don't eat foods with rough textures, such as toast or crackers.How sudden is throat cancer? ›
Throat cancer is a rare form of cancer that develops in the throat, larynx or tonsils. Some of its most common symptoms include a persistent sore throat and/or cough, difficulty swallowing, hoarseness, ear pain and a neck mass. It can develop quickly, which is why early diagnosis is key to successful treatment.Does throat cancer hurt a lot? ›
A throat cancer lump can be painful all the time and also when swallowing.Do you feel tired with throat cancer? ›
People with oral or oropharyngeal cancer may experience the following symptoms or signs. A symptom is something that only the person experiencing it can identify and describe, such as fatigue, nausea, or pain. A sign is something that other people can identify and measure, such as a fever, rash, or an elevated pulse.What happens to your body when you have throat cancer? ›
Generally, though, they include a sore throat that doesn't go away, pain or difficulty swallowing, persistent ear pain, a lump in the neck or throat, hoarseness or other changes in the voice, nosebleeds, headaches, coughing up blood, unexplained weight loss, sores in the throat, constant bad breath and a stiff jaw.Can you live a long life after throat cancer? ›
With treatment, many people live a long life after throat cancer, especially when it's caught early.What are the late stages of throat cancer? ›
The most advanced TNM stage of throat cancer is stage 4. In this advanced stage, the tumor can be any size, but the cancer has spread to: other tissue close by such as the trachea, mouth, thyroid and jaw. one lymph node (over 3 centimeters) or many lymph nodes (any size) on the same side of the neck.Can throat cancer be cured completely? ›
Throat cancers may be cured when detected early. If the cancer has not spread (metastasized) to surrounding tissues or lymph nodes in the neck, about one half of patients can be cured. If the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes and parts of the body outside the head and neck, the cancer is not curable.
- Using a scope to get a closer look at your throat. Your doctor may use a special lighted scope (endoscope) to get a close look at your throat during a procedure called endoscopy. ...
- Removing a tissue sample for testing. ...
- Imaging tests.
Computed tomography (CT) scan
This test can help your doctor determine the size of the tumor, see if it's growing into nearby tissues, and find out if it has spread to lymph nodes in your neck. It might also be done to look for the spread of cancer to your lungs or other organs.
Around 90 out of 100 adults (around 90%) will survive their cancer for 5 years or more after diagnosis. Stage 1 laryngeal cancer is only in one part of the larynx and the vocal cords are still able to move.Has anyone survived throat cancer? ›
Glottis (part of the larynx including the vocal cords)
|SEER stage||5-year relative survival rate|
|All SEER stages combined||77%|
Approximately 50% of untreated head and neck cancer patients will die within 4 months of their diagnosis. However, the remaining patients can survive up to 4 or more years, depending on their tumour location, extent, performance status and level of supportive care.What does Stage 2 throat cancer look like? ›
Stage 2 throat cancer: The tumor has grown larger (usually between 2 cm and 4 cm) but still remains within the throat. There is no evidence of spread to lymph nodes or distant sites. Stage 3 throat cancer: The tumor has grown beyond the throat and may extend into nearby tissues or organs.What are the symptoms of stage 2 throat cancer? ›
- a change in your voice, such as sounding hoarse.
- pain when swallowing or difficulty swallowing.
- a lump or swelling in your neck.
- a long-lasting cough or breathlessness.
- a persistent sore throat or earache.
- a high-pitched wheezing noise when you breathe.
- in severe cases, difficulty breathing.
Abnormal cells are found in the lining of the larynx. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.What color is cancer phlegm? ›
The most common symptoms of lung cancer are: A cough that does not go away or gets worse. Coughing up blood or rust-colored sputum (spit or phlegm) Chest pain that is often worse with deep breathing, coughing, or laughing.What color is cancer mucus? ›
Pink, Red or Bloody Phlegm
If you're coughing up red, pink or bloody phlegm, you should be seen by your provider. It could be related to an infection or to cancer in some cases.
When mucus starts to build up or trickle down the back of the throat, this is known as postnasal drip. Causes of postnasal drip include infections, allergies, and acid reflux. As well as feeling the need to clear the throat frequently, a person with postnasal drip may also experience: a sore throat.Can throat cancer spread to the brain? ›
 HNSCC frequently spreads to regional lymph nodes and, at late stages, may also metastasize to distant organs such as the brain.Where does throat cancer spread to? ›
Lungs – Throat cancer that spreads to distant sites is most commonly found in the lungs. Bones – Another distant site where throat cancer is often found is the bones.Can you overcome throat cancer? ›
There are several ways to treat throat cancer, including: surgery to remove the cancer. radiation therapy, using high-energy rays such as x-rays to destroy cancer cells. chemotherapy with drugs that kill cancer cells.How long can you live with cancer without knowing? ›
If you're wondering how long you can have cancer without knowing it, there's no straight answer. Some cancers can be present for months or years before they're detected. Some commonly undetected cancers are slow-growing conditions, which gives doctors a better chance at successful treatment.What is the best drink for cancer patients? ›
- Clear, fat-free broth.
- Clear carbonated beverages.
- Apple/cranberry/grape juice.
- Fruit ices without fruit pieces.
- Fruit ices without milk.
- Fruit punch.
Subsite analysis revealed that vitamin D status exerted the most significant effects on the development of cancers of the larynx and hypopharynx. A doubling of circulating vitamin D levels corresponded to an adjusted risk decrease of developing cancer of the larynx or hypopharynx of 58%.What vitamins prevent throat cancer? ›
Vitamin C. Vitamin C, a water-soluble vitamin found plentifully in bright-hued fruits and vegetables, has been of particular interest with regards to cancer prevention, including cancers of the oral cavity.How curable is throat cancer? ›
Throat cancers may be cured when detected early. If the cancer has not spread (metastasized) to surrounding tissues or lymph nodes in the neck, about one half of patients can be cured. If the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes and parts of the body outside the head and neck, the cancer is not curable.What age do most people get throat cancer? ›
Most people diagnosed with laryngeal cancer are 55 or older; a very small number of people diagnosed are younger than 55. The average age of people diagnosed with laryngeal cancer is about 66.
Throat cancer is a rare form of cancer that develops in the throat, larynx or tonsils. Some of its most common symptoms include a persistent sore throat and/or cough, difficulty swallowing, hoarseness, ear pain and a neck mass. It can develop quickly, which is why early diagnosis is key to successful treatment.Whats the longest you can live with throat cancer? ›
How Long Can You Live with Larynx Cancer?
|Cancer Type||Survival Rate|
|The five-year survival rate for localized larynx cancer in the glottis (cancer that has not spread outside the larynx)||83%|
Around 90 out of 100 adults (around 90%) will survive their cancer for 5 years or more after diagnosis. Stage 1 laryngeal cancer is only in one part of the larynx and the vocal cords are still able to move. The cancer has not spread to nearby tissues, lymph nodes or other organs.How painful is throat cancer? ›
Trouble swallowing: Throat cancer can cause pain or a burning sensation when chewing and swallowing food. You might feel like food is sticking in your throat. A lump in your throat: You may have a lump in your throat caused by an enlarged lymph node.What are late signs of throat cancer? ›
- Persistent cough.
- Difficulty swallowing.
- A lump in the mouth, throat or neck.
- Hoarseness or other voice changes.
- Ear or jaw pain.
- White patches or sores in the mouth or throat.
- Difficulty breathing.